Singapore (in Mandarin: 新加坡, Xīnjiāpō; in Malay: Singapura; in Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர், Cingkappūr) is an island nation located at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. It lies 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the Equator, south of the Malaysian state of Johor and north of Indonesia's Riau Islands. At 704.0 km² (272 sq mi), it is one of the few remaining city-states in the world and the smallest country in Southeast Asia.
The British East India Company established a trading post on the island in 1819. The main settlement up to that point was a Malay fishing village at the mouth of the Singapore River. Several hundred indigenous Orang Laut people also lived around the coast, rivers and smaller islands. The British used Singapore as a strategic trading post along the spice route. It became one of the most important commercial and military centres of the British Empire. When it was occupied by the Japanese during World War II, Winston Churchill called it "Britain's greatest defeat". Singapore reverted to British rule in 1945. In 1963, it merged with Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia. Less than two years later it split from the federation and became an independent republic on 9 August 1965. Singapore joined the United Nations on September 21 that same year.
Since independence, Singapore's standard of living has increased. Foreign direct investment and a state-led industrialization drive based on plans drawn up by the Dutch economist Albert Winsemius have created a modern economy based on electronics manufacturing, petrochemicals, tourism and financial services alongside the traditional entrepôt trade. Singapore is the 17th wealthiest country in the world in terms of GDP per capita. The small nation has a foreign reserve of S$224.65385 billion (US$158.99250 billion).
The population of Singapore is approximately 4.68 million. The Chinese form the majority of the population. English is the administration language of the country.
The Constitution of the Republic of Singapore established the nation's political system as a representative democracy, while the country is recognized as a parliamentary republic. The People's Action Party (PAP) dominates the political process and has won control of Parliament in every election since self-government in 1959.